1. Kate is born with features that do not look quite normal. Her eyes are wide-set and slightly slanted. Her nose is short and flat, and she keeps her mouth slightly open. There is a straight crease across her palm, and her fifth digit is unusually short. The doctor tells her parents she has an inherited disorder. If you were the doctor what would you diagnosis Kate with? Discuss the etiology of Kate’s disorder? What is the biggest risk factor for this disorder? How can or will this disorder affect Kate? What test could have been completed to diagnosis this disorder before Kate’s birth?
2. Research one autosomal dominant disease, one autosomal recessive disease, and a sex-linked disease. For each disease discuss: 1. Etiology, 2. Signs and Symptoms, 3. Diagnosis, 4. Treatment and Prevention. Provide additional information from an outside source.
3. A 12-year-old child experiences high fever and chills. He also says that his heart feels like its pounding. Two weeks before these symptoms, the child fell off his bike and skinned his knee. This child also has a history of a heart murmur. What disease should be considered and what is the treatment? What congenital heart disease is associated with heart murmurs?
4. A 59-year-old male calls the paramedics after experiencing an episode of chest pain while shoveling snow. He describes his pain as a crushing, tight feeling that radiates to his left arm and jaw. What type(s) of heart disease is this patient experiencing (explain)? What diagnostic test would you expect the physician to order and why? What is the treatment?
1. Blood transfusions are sometimes required in healthcare. Based on what you know about blood anatomy discuss why a patient would need a transfusion of PRBC (packed red blood cells), plasma, or platelets. A patient with anemia has a pulse oximetry reading in the high 80’s, would this be an expected finding, explain?
2. Mike, 29 years old, was admitted to a community hospital three days ago with weakness and hypotension after sustaining a spider bite while hiking in the woods. Mike has a large hematoma on his left arm where he was bite. He has no prior medical history, no drug allergies, and does not take medication. Mike started to experience moderate respiratory distress, and started oozing blood from his IV sites, nose, and catheter. He is mildly jaundice and his skin is cool. His vital signs include a heart rate of 110 beats per minute and regular blood pressure of 92/44, slightly labored respiratory rate of 22 breaths per minute, and a pulse oximetry reading of 91 percent. What would your initial diagnosis be, explain? What diagnostic test would you order and why? What would you expect the diagnostic test to show? What is the treatment option for the diagnosis?
3. During natural disasters like hurricanes, when the community is living in shelters, why would there be a concern about a tuberculosis outbreak? What circumstances have led to the spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis? Mary, a nurse, skin test was positive for tuberculosis. Does this mean she has tuberculosis? Explain.
4. Each year many people go to their family physician with a common cold, but think they have the influenza. Based on symptoms how can you tell if you have a common cold or influenza? What are the causes and treatments for Pneumonia? What is the best way to prevent influenza and pneumonia?
1. Discuss the five types of Hepatitis in terms of etiology, symptoms, treatment and prevention.
2. Discuss is the difference between the etiology and symptoms of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. Can a person have cholelithiasis and cholecystitis at the same time? How can cholelithiasis and cholecystitis affect the liver and pancreas? Explain why one cannot live without the pancreas.
3. Why is diabetes associated with chronic renal disease and end stage renal disease, explain? What are the treatment options and health lifestyle changes for chronic renal disease? What is the purpose of dialysis and the difference between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis?
4. Zach is a high school football player. He took a hard blow to the left flank and has a large bruise. He came into the ER with a suspected acute kidney injury. What signs and symptoms would you expect to see? What diagnostic test would you expect to be order and why? What is the treatment for acute kidney injury?
1. An 18 year old female is being seen in the office for lower abdominal pain and irregular menstrual bleeding. The physician wants to rule out PID and endometriosis. What are the sign and symptoms, and etiology of PID and endometriosis? What diagnostic test would the physician order? The physician also orders a CA125, what is this test used for?
2. A 19 year old male is being see in the office for a red, swollen, and painful left scrotum. What are the risk factors, diagnostic test, treatment, and prevention for epididymis and orchitis? Which STD scares you the most especially if you have teenagers and young adults, why?
3. Identify and discuss the function of hormones of the anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary. If a 10 year old patient is in anterior pituitary failure, what would you expect to see?
4. What are the signs and symptoms of thyroid cancer? After a thyroidectomy, what medications will be required from the rest of the patient’s life? What purpose does the parathyroid have? If during the thyroidectomy, the parathyroid glands also removed, what does this mean for the patient?
1. George, while working in the bar, ran a rusty nail through the bottom of his foot. What infectious disease should he be concerned about? Why is this disease usually associated with injuries from rusty nails? What are the signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment for this disease?
2. A 16 year old was admitted in meningitis. What are the signs and symptoms of meningitis? What diagnostic test is use to diagnosis the cause of meningitis and how many types of meningitis are there? What is the recommended treatment for each type? What is the new recommendation for meningitis vaccinations (how many total and what age)?
3. As we age, most of us will experience changes in our hearing and vision. Discuss the signs and symptoms, diagnostic test, and treatment options for the following: Presbycusis and Macular degeneration.
4. Can mental illnesses be prevented, cured, or are people born with the illness, explain? What are some of the early warning signs of mental illness? Do you feel there is a social stigma around some or all mental illnesses, explain.
1. A 12 year old boy complains of achy joints usually after soccer practice. He complains of pain upon waking in the morning although pain lessens as he is more active during the day. He has been diagnosed with juvenile arthritis. What is the role of genes in the development of arthritis?
2. Compare and contrast osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
3. A 79 year old male presents with a fever. Upon assessment it is noted that he has a large reddened area on his left calf. It is warm and tender to the touch. Compare and contrast the diagnosis of erysipelas and cellulitis. Which is the correct diagnosis? Why?
4. Sally, a 43 year old female, is at her doctors for a regular checkup. During the exam, the doctor notices white patches inside Sally’s mouth. Sally tells the doctor that she noticed it as well but that it didn’t hurt so she wasn’t concerned. After Sally’s doctor asks a few more question, he finds out that she has been on antibiotics for just over a week. What is the correct diagnosis? What is the cause of these white patches and what treatment plan should be taken? Could Sally have prevented this outbreak?
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