midterm

Read instructions carefully and answer them within 2-3 full and short paragraphs. Do not answer them separately. plz do single-spaced as four pages

Identify the reading(s) you are using with in-text citations. When you reference an idea, concept, or argument from a reading, please provide an in-text citation of the author’s or authors’ last name(s) only, e.g., (Connell & Messerschmidt). If the idea is in a lecture but also in one or more readings, then cite the reading(s). If the idea comes from my lecture but is not in the readings, then cite the lecture as (Blair- Loy lecture). Exact quotations are not expected, but if you do use an exact quote, use quotation marks and reference the last name and the page, e.g., (Connell and Messerschmidt, p. 832). Ideas from this book can only use no more than twice.

1. First, using Connell and Messerschmidt, define “hegemonic masculinity”. Then, drawing on a different reading, give one detailed example of how hegemonic masculinity works in a specific social setting. And Drawing on Schippers, define and explain gender hegemony and give an example from course materials. And what rules does it(gender hegemony) play in society? What is the social setting of gender hegemony in society? >

2. Drawing on Wade & Ferree’s book,《genders:ideas,interactions,and insitutions》Chap. 6 and Chap. 7, explain the evolution of the cheerleading occupation in terms of its gender composition and social honor. Using Cornell’s ideas/definitions to apply concepts of “hegemonic masculinity”,and Define what is it. (Connell and Messerschmidt). Apply concepts and “hegemonic femininity” (Schippers) to this empirical example. State what rules does hegemonic femininity play in social settings. And use other readings to support both.

3. Drawing on Schippers, define and explain: gender hegemony, hegemonic femininity, pariah femininity, and their social settings.

4. Drawing on Wade & Ferree Chap. 2, what is gender dimorphism? How dimorphic is the human species (compared to other species of living beings)? Use other readings to make an example to support and what the social rule and social setting do it play?

6. Drawing on Wade & Ferree’s summary of international research, explain which gender group – boys or girls – generally out-performs the other in math, on average. Which gender group – boys or girls — tends to outperform the other in the top 1%? chapter 3

7. Draw on Wade & Ferree to explain the change over time in the ratio of gender groups present among 12-14-year-olds in the top 1% of math abilities. What does this example suggest about gender dimorphism? chapter 3

8. Draw on Hoffman et al. to explain if and how nurture shapes gender differences in rotating and fitting together three-dimensional objects.

9. First, briefly explain the concept of gender essentialism. Second, explain how Sapolsky’s discussion of testosterone (and other androgens) challenges the belief in gender essentialism.

10. First, briefly explain the concept of gender essentialism. Second, explain how Ehrenreich’s discussion of the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse scandal challenges the belief in gender essentialism.

11. Cottom writes:
“For beauty to function as it should, it must exclude me. Big Beauty – the structure of who can be beautiful, the stories we tell about beauty, the value we assign to beauty, the power given to those with beauty, the disciplining effect of the fear of losing beauty you might possess- definitionally excludes the kind of blackness I carry in my history and my bones. Beauty is for white women, if not for all white women” (“In the Name of Beauty, in Thick: And Other Essays, p. 65).
What does Cottom’s experience tell us about hegemonic femininity? And use other class materials to make an example and support. What is the social rule & setting does it play in society? Discuss.

need to read:
Wade & Ferree. Chap. 2: “Ideas” in Gender: Ideas, Interactions, Institutions.
Blair-Loy, M. 2003. Introduction. Competing Devotions: Career and Family among Women Executives. Harvard University Press.
Connell & Messerschmidt. 2005. “Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept.” Gender & Society 19. Required pp. 829, 832-835, 846-848.
Dave Zirin . “The NFL’s in denial about depression: While the league parties on, some of its players are secretly hurting.” Los Angeles Times Opinion page Sept. 21, 2008
Jessica Testa and Jonah Engel Bromwich. “Real Men Don’t Rent.” New York Times Jan. 8 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/08/style/men-rent-rental-clothing.html?action=click&algo=top_conversion&auth=login- email&contentCollection=Trending&fellback=true&imp_id=822506992&imp_id=84471492&login=email&module=editorContent &pgtype=Article&region=CompanionColumn

Wade & Ferree. Chap. 6: “Inequality: Men and Masculinities” in Gender: Ideas, Interactions, Institutions.
Schippers, Mimi. 2007. “Recovering the feminine other: masculinity, femininity, and gender hegemony.” Theory and Society 36:85ff. Required is pp. 94-98 only.
Wade & Ferree. Chap7:” Inequality, Women and Femininities” in Gender: Ideas, Interactions, Institutions.
Wade & Ferree. Chap. 3: “Bodies” in Gender: Ideas, Interactions, Institutions.
Sapolsky, Robert M. “The Trouble with Testosterone: Will Boys Just Be Boys?” Pp. 147-160 in Sapolsky. 1997. The Trouble with Testosterone and other Essays on the Biology of the Human Predicament. Touchstone.
Cottom, Tressie McMillan. 2019. “In the Name of Beauty” chapter from Thick and Other Essays. The New Press.
Moshe Hoffman et al. 2011. “Nurture Affects Gender Differences in Spatial Abilities.” PNAS 2011 (108, 36).
Ehrenreich, B. 2004. “What Abu Ghraib Taught Me.”

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