research paper on Flint Michigan water crisis

research paper on Flint Michigan water crisis

8 pages of words, 2pages of figures, 5 citations, title page, abstract page, and a work cited page


Term Paper Format (all pages must be numbered):
Page 1: Title page, include the title of your paper, your name, major, email address, and date.
Page 2: “Abstract,” this is a summary of the entire paper, it lists the topic or problem addressed,
the main findings and conclusions drawn. The abstract must not exceed one page.
Pages 3-12 (or more): Will be the text of your term paper, typed double space, 12 point font.
This means that your term paper must be at least 10 pages long (pages 3-12). You may include
two pages of figures in that ten page count (so 8 pages of text and 2 pages of figures, minimum).
Figures are not required, and if no figures are displayed then the paper must be 10 pages long.
Your figures must be numbered (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc) and they must include a caption
explaining what is depicted and where it came from (your source). You may include more than
one figure per page, or you can go over the 10 page goal with up to five or six figures total (but
remember the required 8 pages of text).
You must base your research paper on at least five peer-reviewed journal articles, and on
the textbook by Marshak and Rauber (2020). Ideally, you want to read and study the most
important peer-reviewed articles in your field of interest, and some of the most relevant recent
articles. These classic or important articles on any particular topic are easy to find with careful
internet research. I can help you if you have questions about the key literature in any field. If
your topic is not even mentioned in the textbook then it is not a good choice for this assignment.
You may use information obtained from the World Wide Web (as the internet was initially
called), but this should only be used sparingly and not as a substitute for the five journal article
requirement. However, there are some outstanding websites with quality images that can greatly
enhance your term paper. You may definitely use maps, graphs, or other charts from NASA,
NOAA, USGS, and other federal agency websites, but be sure to fully acknowledge where the
figures were obtained. Be wary of obtaining valid scientific information at any web site not
ending in .gov or .edu.
Last page of term paper: The list of references consulted for your paper must be included on
the last page. Use complete citations, listing author(s), date, title of article, journal name,
volume number, and pages. I usually use the bibliographic style of the American Meteorological
Society. It is complete and easy, so please use this style for your citations as well. I give a few
examples below, just follow the style below as closely as you can. When you make a bold
statement of fact in the text of your term paper you need to cite the source of that information by
simply noting the first author and date in parentheses.


more helpful information:

Your term paper can be written from either perspective. You may
investigate the scientific aspects of your research topic or the economic, environmental, or social
implications of your topic. If you choose the latter, lets call it a “socioeconomic perspective,”
please first provide a university-level description of the earth science topic you chose and then
discuss the socioeconomic or environmental importance of the topic. For example, lets say you
would like to investigate the socioeconomic impacts of groundwater exploitation in eastern
Arkansas, which is a real problem that may impact the future economic growth of Arkansas.
This over-exploitation of groundwater is both a problem and an opportunity for innovation.
There may be engineering solutions to make the extraction, distribution, and use of groundwater
more efficient. Or we might address the problem by using more water efficient crops or
advanced crop management techniques. New regulations and taxation might also be considered
to encourage more sustainable practices. You might choose to explore the groundwater
depletion issue from one of these perspectives, and therefore your paper would be both scientific
and socioeconomic. In this case, your term paper would first provide a solid description of the
problem, answering some or all of the typical questions concerning any research topic like
“what, where, when, why, who”, and “how severe is the problem,” “how fast is it happening.”
And then your paper would review the potential solutions.
This groundwater topic is just an example to give you an idea about what kind of
information goes into a university-level research paper. You might choose instead to write a
scientific paper on sea level rise. In that case, your paper should outline the history of sea level
changes over geologic time, especially during the Quaternary ice age when the advance and
retreat of the vast continental ice sheets caused global sea level to change as water from the
ocean was added or released from the massive continental ice sheets. How much sea level
changed from full glacial to full inter-glacial conditions would be very important to note, how
much water is currently stored in Greenland and Antarctica, how much sea level would rise if all
of that ice were to melt, along with the scientific evidence for the natural factors that cause sea
level to change on these long glacial to post-glacial time scales (that “orbital theory” gets a little
bit complicated, but it is also one of the most amazing things ever discovered in the history of the
Earth Sciences). Then, finally, you would want to discuss what role humans are now playing in
global sea level change and what might be done to mitigate the changes and impacts.

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