Short Answer

This exam covers the book, The Future of Crime and Punishment, as well as all instructor videos.

For the exam, you are permitted to refer to the course book as a reference; however, at no time is a student to quote any aspects of the book, verbatim. It must be in your own words.

For each question, it is strongly suggested that students write a minimum of 450 words but no more than 750 words per question. Please, do not write more than 750 words per response. If you exceed this, you will incur a penalty for going over the word limit. Please note that even though there are three questions, each of the three questions have various sub questions. Use a separate paragraph to answer each sub question so that you don’t miss responding to any question.

It must be apparent from reading each response that students have not only read the material, but are also quite familiar with it. Under no circumstances is a student permitted to use outside material (e.g. copy form the Internet sources or Wikipedia) during the test. If a student is caught doing this, he/she will receive a zero for the assignment. You may cite outside material as long as it is relevant to the point you are making and you provide an intext citation and a reference. The instructor will be submitting work to Safe, if it appears that any material or ideas have been taken from the internet, this matter will be treated as an academic integrity violation.
++Answer the following questions.

1. In your opinion, why do you suppose that the black imprisonment rate is 5.5 times that for whites? Is the criminal justice system in a sense racist? Please take a position either way and point to various aspects of the assigned reading to bolster your argument.

Next, why do you suppose that the birth of crime control occurred in 1968 under President Nixon? What was it about this particular time in history that lent itself to the beginning of harsh criminal justice policies? It should be evident that you have a clear understanding of William Kelly’s book.

Also, has the crime decline over the last two decades been a direct result of punitive, “get-tough” criminal justice policies, or can it be attributed to other factors? If so, what are these factors, according to Kelly? Fully elaborate.

Next, please provide at least one example, according to Kelly, as to how punitive criminal justice policies have softened within the past few years. Be specific. Do you believe this trend is likely to continue? Why or why not?

Finally, some scholars have argued that it is not sound criminal justice policy to execute offenders. Provide at least one reason provided by Kelly as to why the death penalty is problematic. In your opinion, will the death penalty be used in the United States twenty years from now or will it be abolished? Support your position.

2. In your opinion, why is the insanity defense rarely used as a criminal defense strategy? Next, as you know from the reading, a few states have abolished the insanity defense. Do you agree or disagree with this? Fully explain your answer.

Next, given what we know about elderly offenders and the enormous costs associated with incarcerating these individuals, please provide one suggestion as to how expenses can be reduced while also keeping society safe. It should be evident that you have carefully reflected upon William Kelly’s book.

Next, after reading this book, do you believe that prosecutors in the United States have too much power, not enough power, or about the right amount of power. Make a convincing argument and point to various aspects of the assigned reading to bolster your position.

Finally, if it can be demonstrated that a person has a mental illness, should he or she be completely diverted from going to jail and sent to a mental health provider instead? Elaborate.

Finally, how can police officers determine whether or not an individual is truly experiencing a mental health crisis or is trying to “game the system” by feigning mental illness to avoid punishment.

3. Texas used to have a law, which required juvenile suspects to meet with a criminal attorney prior to being interrogated by police officers. In your opinion, would it be advantageous to return to the above policy? Take a position either way and fully support it.

Next, according to William Kelly, during the 1960s, the liberal Warren Court handed down a number of decisions that were intended to provide juvenile defendants with important civil liberties. Of the three Supreme Court juvenile justice cases discussed by William Kelly, which one do you think transformed the juvenile justice system the most. Fully elaborate.

Next, describe the impact that all three of these juvenile justice cases have had on the administration of justice for juvenile defendants. Have these court decisions resulted in more or less justice for juvenile for juvenile defendants? Take a position either way and fully defend it.

Next, what is generally regarded as the age of culpability (or criminal responsibility) in the United States? Do you agree or disagree with this? Fully elaborate.

Finally, why has there been a substantial reduction in juvenile incarceration over the past ten years, according to William Kelly? Do you believe this trend will continue in the years to come? Why or why not?

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