In this final essay, I am asking that you use the skills for crafting arguments and utilizing a non-literary source to explain a literary source you have developed in formal assignments #1 and #2 to create an argument around ONE of the following questions:
To what extent might Torvald be viewed as a victim of social constructs and expectations just as much as Nora is? In other words, can Torvald be viewed, at least to some extent, as a character worthy of sympathy?
To what extent do you agree with Mrs. Linde’s assessment of Nora in Act I that Nora is like a child? Is she as naive as she might first appear? Does she transform by the end of the play?
To strengthen your argument, you must use TWO of the following sources
Abraham Maslow’s “Self-Actualizing and Beyond”
Aaron Devor’s “Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes”
Deborah Tannen’s “Sex, Lies and Conversation”
Be sure that you develop an argument in your paper. Consider the following templates as you work toward crafting your argument/thesis:
Consider the following templates as you develop your thesis:
Although some may ______________, a more effective interpretation is _________________.
Some might argue that _________________. However, upon closer examination, ______________.
The view that _____________________ certainly has merit, but ____________.
A few notes:
Be sure the paper follows MLA formatting
Be sure to include a works cited page
Be sure to include relevant textual evidence from A Doll’s House, “Self-actualizing and Beyond,” and “Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes.”
Possible Outline for Formal Essay #3
Introduce the topic by considering the gender roles and expectations at the time.
Introduce the play:
Title, author, central conflict as it relates to gender expectations
State your thesis/argument.
DO NOT introduce Maslow, Devor or Tannen in the introduction.
Like formal assignment #1, develop two or three supporting ideas for your thesis and be sure to also include a counterargument and rebuttal paragraph.
Questions you may wish to address in the body of your essay:
How does each character define him/herself?
What influences that perception of self?
How does that perception of self impact not only the character, but those around them?
Might the character be metaphorically wearing a mask to hide their true identity?
* ESSAY #1 AND ESSAY #2*
Culture and Heritage on Everyday Use by Alice Walker Heritage provides the logic of significance and custom to different families across the universe; nevertheless, it is even not essential or overlooked in many individuals’ lives. According to “Everyday Use by Alice Walker,” the subject is around the value of Heritage in individuals’ lives, cherished and perceived by persons. This paper aims to discuss how culture and heritage is viewed differently throughout individuals’ lives and in Everyday Use by Alice Walker.
At first, the war appears to be just around their household disputes, but as the narrative advances, the fight becomes more vibrant, and the leading battle begins to display. “In Alice Walker’s Everyday Use,” the central conflict amongst Mama, Maggie, and Dee originate from their standards and considerate of their Heritage and the way of life (Arthur 43). Walker employs several details all over the narrative to characterize their origin, how they treasure it, and its significance to every one of them. Walker even uses Mama, Maggie, Dee, to depict the two diverse perceptions of heritage and beliefs (Arthur 45). Even though Dee claims to care for her heritage, she has a very conflicting opinion from her mother and her blood sister. Dee has grown up in a different world since “no” is a term that the universe did not learn to say to her.
Furthermore, she is more educated than Mama and Maggie. Growing to maturity with all these, Dee felt free and independent, although staying in a similar household was another thing to Maggie. Contrary, Maggie never had adequate freedom than her sister and even was not educated than her (Arthur 47). Thus, growing up in this way made her feel nervous towards Dee and even staying with her mother now and then made her perspective concerning heritage very strong. Even if Dee claims to love her household and custom, she never only discards and disrespects her family but does that to her name, inherited from her ancestors (Walker 3). Whenever confronted concerning changing her name, she claims that name was provided to her by dictators.
Nevertheless, her mother had a different opinion about this, for she said that this name came from her aunt, whom her grandmother gave it to her. For that reason, Alice Walker even uses their family and quilt as an object of showing the two angles on heritage (Walker 7). According to the story, Dee never liked their house; her hatred made her stand and watch as the house was burning. On the other hand, her sister was different, for she loved their home very much.
Similarly, when they were arguing about the quilt, Dee blamed Maggie for not appreciating these quilts. She told Maggie that she would probably be outdated to use them daily. This indicates that Dee ignores Maggie and her opinions that her viewpoint is better on the quilt (Walker 10). The moment she was shooting pictures with her relatives, she liked the house, although never cared for it to live there. Additionally, she also wanted the quilts because she could hang them up.
Although they consider and care concerning their tradition, Maggie’s outlook is much on the ancestral, family legacy, and the past behind everything. However, Dee’s significance is on the visible portion of her culture but never on the history and ethnicities (Edmondson 8). Whenever speaking about culture’s themes, we may conclude that everybody has their principles and ethics on their traditionbeing facilitated by everything surrounding them, such as the individuals and their surroundings. “In Everyday Use,” both Maggie and Mama have a contradictory view on heritage compared to Sister Dee (Edmondson 10). Nevertheless, although every person has conflicting perceptions of custom and other things, what is crucial is that they somehow value their tradition. A good percentage of individuals think that heritage is just a worldly thing that can be felt and the basis of the family, linguistic, or everything inherited from the preceding peer group by the name heritage (Miller 67). As well, lineage may be regarded differently by people.
Many individuals may believe that tradition deserves to be preserved in an exhibition hall, but some think that Heritage is a portion of their everyday lives. For that reason, Walker presents several values or implications about Heritage via the personality’s perception in her narrative “Everyday Use” (Miller 73). Alice Walker shows two diverse opinions toward traditions. The first thought is presented through Maggie and her mother. The two of them perceive heritage that they are made to be subjected in everyday use, and for that reason, they are anticipated but never beingkept somewhere so that people might recall it. Besides, Alice Walker also claims that everyday use of heritage will be shifted to be used within the following generations since it will be a crucial portion of their daily life if they keep on exercising it. Furthermore, Maggie’s’ mother tells her that she can produce quilts every moment she desires since she offers a significance and value towered culture in her life (Miller 78).
In conclusion, as discussed in the paper, Walker uses setting, imagery, and personality development in her story to reveal the value of valuing and upholding the critical importance and correct implication of African-American principles and tradition. In “Everyday Use,” Alice Walker uses objects in Mama’s household, which stand for beliefs and Heritage—understanding the means of producing legacy as talent is an additional perception from Alice Walker that is connected to the fact that Heritage has to be applied in everyday life.
Sonny Blues Narrative
The sonny blues story starts with the first person narrator reading a newspaper where he reads about his younger brother, arrested for using and selling heroin. The narrator is an algebra teacher who is a husband and a father. In contrast, his brother Sonny is a musician who lives wildlife. After Sonny’s arrest, the narrator did not contact his brother, which he is worried about and disapproves about his brother’s use of drugs and the different attraction towards bebop music. After the brother is released from prison, he moves to live with the narrator, which gives them a chance to learn about one another. The narrator explains that their life was full of darkness, which they refer to as two darknesses . The first darkness is the one they say that is on them, and the second darkness is that of the movies which blinded them on the initial darkness. The narrator tells the students that as they grow, they might start using drugs just like his own brother, and maybe the pills could do more than the algebra could. The narrator explains that the screens and the entertainment sector have drawn away from their attention from their own lives.
The narrator remembers their childhood moments where they place their loving and tough father, an alcoholic problem. The narrator explains that Sonny and their father did not have a good relationship because they were both alike and loved privacy. The narrator remembers their childhood on how they could sit with adults in the evening to listen to their stories on the things they had suffered and endured. The narrator and his brother, Sonny, were so afraid as they knew that these struggles and sufferings would be one day their pain to bear. Self-actualization is a progression where by an individual realizes his inner strengths and abilities to do something or become someone productive through doing that particular thing. Maslow believes that in the process of self-actualizing, an individual may be tempted to make many choices and decisions which are not good” (Jamie 104). In the story Sonny’s blue narrative by James Baldwin we learn of many struggles that Sonny and his brother pass through in the search for their true identity, for instance, they are introduced to alcohol and other drugs and substances, for example heroin which makes Sonny an addict until he is sent to prison. When sonny was released from jail, instead of going on using heroin he searches for something to do and that is when he settles with bebop music so that at least he can be able to portray and express his emotions
Sonny wants to self-actualize by exploring his inner talents, his passion was always in jazz music and when he is young, he tells his brother that he wants to be a jazz musician but his brother does not think that’s it’s the right path for sonny to follow, until one day when he goes to the club to witness his brother perform with his band, that is when it dawned on him what his brother thought and felt, he was able to understand his brother’s feelings and emotions. Despite the discouragement from his brother, sonny does not give up on his journey and dream to be a jazz star and musician, and this is where we see sonny is much closer to be self-actualized, this contrasts with Maslow’s statement when he says that “if you want to choose wisely for a life, you must dare listen to your inner voice and make decisions based on what is good for you and reject that which is not good for you” (Jamie 104). If you want to be self-actualized the opinion of others does not matter.
Sonny had to stand firm and balance between the pressures from his brother and what he wanted for himself. This is another struggle that he faces towards getting self-actualized. Another struggle that he faces is about him adapting to the bohemian lifestyle. The two lifestyles make personality development so hard as the narrator wants to live in a particular way of society and according to his instructions by the mother. Simultaneously, he becomes a stumbling block to sonny as he cannot also develop his own identity or personality as the narrator is policing him without knowing
Sonny’s brother also denies him the opportunity to join the military, and insists that Sonny should live with his fiancée and family. The social set up that the narrator grows up in stirs confusion despite his position in society (Johansson). In a growing environment and culture, the narrator still feels burdened by what he heard while he was a child. Social expectations will not allow the narrator and the brother to seek their true identity or pursue their dream career as society does not expect them to live. The brothers catch up in a fight one evening as the narrator cannot understand Sonny as the narrator still lives in the old society lifestyle, this is another barrier to self-actualization by Abraham Maslow because he says that if one wants to be self-actualized then he or she needs to live contrary to the expectations of the society, its norms and search for who he or she is and what they believe in (Jamie 115).
The narrator just like his brother Sonny also faces many challenges in his search for true identity though it may seem that sonny is wrong, closer examination shows that the narrator is the primary cause of the struggles. The narrator is yet to find himself and the kind of lifestyle he wants to live as he is torn between social expectations and living towards one’s goals in life (Nishi 499). The narrator must first realize the path that he wants to take for him to guide Sonny accurately. Failure to that, the narrator will never find himself and will never allow Sonny to do so too.
Self-actualization needs to take the highest position and level in Maslow’s hierarchy, which refers to realizing a person’s future potential, seeking personal growth, peak experiences, and self-fulfillment. Maslow explains the level at which one desires to accomplish everything they can and become the most that they can be. In the sonny blues story, Sonny wants to explore his life and seek his real identity in his talents and career, but the narrator will not allow him to pursue the dreams because they do not align with the social expectations (Hopper). The narrator’s sense of self is wholly connected to the social definition of identity, while his brother wants to seek his way to identity through peak experiences.
sample essay the bottom !!!!!!
The Character Contest in Flannery O’Connor’s “Everything That Rises Must Converge”
Sociologist Erving Goffman in his “Character Contest” asserts that every social interaction establishes our identity and preserves our image, honor, and credibility in the hearts and minds of others. Social interactions, he says, are in essence “character contests” that occur not only in games and sports but also in our everyday dealings with strangers, peers, friends, and even family members. Goffman defines character contests as “disputes that are sought out and indulged in (often with glee) as a means of establishing where one’s boundaries are” (29). Just such a contest occurs in Flannery O’Connor’s short story “Everything That Rises Must Converge,” between Julian and his mother, Mrs. Chestny, This contest helps not only reveal each character’s values and perspectives, but to also shine a light on deeply-rooted racism and evolving perspectives on segregation.
As they travel by bus from home to the Y, Julian and his mother, Mrs. Chestny, engage in a character contest. Julian is so frustrated with his mother that he virtually “declared war on her,” “allowed no glimmer of sympathy to show on his face,” and “imagined various unlikely ways by which he could teach her a lesson” (O’Connor 185-186). But why would Julian want to hurt his mother, a woman who is already suffering from high blood pressure? Julian’s conflict with Mrs. Chestny results from pent-up hostility and tension. As Goffman explains, character contests are a way of living that often leaves a “residue” (28), emotional scars and defenses that guide the way individuals respond to each other. According to Goffman, “Every day in many ways we can try to score points and every day we can be shot down” (29). For many years, Julian has had to live under his racist mother’s authority, and every time he protested her racist views he was probably shot down because of his “radical ideas” and “lack of practical experience” (O’Connor 184). As a result, a residue of defeat and shame has accumulated that fuels a fire of rebellion against his mother. But even though Julian rebels against his mother’s racist views, it does not mean that he is not a racist himself. Julian does not realize that in his own way, he is as prejudiced as his mother. He makes it “a point” to sit next to blacks, in contrast to his mother, who purposely sits next to whites (182). They are two extremes, each biased, for if Julian were truly fair to all, he would not care whom he sat next to.
When we look at the situation from Mrs. Chestny’s viewpoint, we realize that she must maintain her values and beliefs for two important reasons: to uphold her character as Julian’s mother and to act out her prescribed role in society. Mrs. Chestny is the matriarch of the family and as such feels compelled to bestow wisdom on Julian, even if that wisdom might be misguided. Mrs. Chestny’s role as matriarch is clearly demonstrated when she advises Julian that “if you know who you are, you can go anywhere” (185). Unfortunately, Mrs. Chestny’s sense of self places her in a position of superiority over black people. But even if she finds Julian’s arguments on race relations and integration valid and plausible, Mrs. Chestny must still refute them. If she did not, she would lose face as Julian’s mother—that image of herself as the one with authority. By preserving her self-image, Mrs. Chestny shows that she has what Goffman sees as key to “character”: some quality that seems “essential and unchanging” (28). These qualities are those that define an individual and which individuals strive to protect at virtually any cost, as is evident in Mrs. Chestney’s refusal to acknowledge that her son may have a more enlightened perspective.
Besides upholding her character as Julian’s mother, Mrs. Chestny wants to preserve the honor and dignity of her family tradition. When speaking of her family heritage she notes that her family were noble Godhighs and is proud of the fact that Julian’s great grandfather “had a plantation and two hundred slaves” (185). Like an actor performing before an audience, she must play the role prescribed for her—the role of a white supremacist. But her situation is hopeless, for the role she must play fails to acknowledge the racial realities that have transformed her world. According to Goffman, when a “situation”is “hopeless,” a character “can gamely give everything . . . and then go down bravely, or proudly, or insolently, or gracefully or with an ironic smile on his lips” (32). For Mrs. Chestny, being game means trying to preserve her honor and dignity as she goes down to physical defeat in the face of hopeless odds.
Given the differences between Mrs. Chestny’s and her son’s values, as well as the oppressiveness of Mrs. Chestny’s racist views, we can understand why Julian struggles to “teach” his mother “a lesson” (185) throughout the entire bus ride. Goffman would point out that “each individual is engaged in providing evidence to establish a definition of himself at the expense of what can remain for the other” (29). But in the end, neither character wins the contest. Julian’s mother loses her sense of self when she is pushed to the ground by a “colored woman” wearing a hat identical to hers (187). Faced with his mother’s breakdown, Julian feels his own identity being overwhelmed by “the world of guilt and sorrow” (191).
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